Hyundai Tucson: Cylinder Head Assembly / Cylinder Head Repair procedures

Removal
Engine removal is not required for this procedure.
   
Use fender covers to avoid damaging painted surfaces.
To avoid damaging the cylinder head, wait until the engine coolant temperature drops below normal temperature (20°C [68°F]) before removing it.
When handling a metal gasket, take care not to fold the gasket or damage the contact surface of the gasket.
To avoid damage, unplug the wiring connectors carefully while holding the connector portion.
   
Mark all wiring and hoses to avoid misconnection.
Turn the crankshaft pulley so that the No. 1 piston is at TDC (Top dead center).
1.
Disconnect the battery negative terminal.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
2.
Remove the RH front wheel.
(Refer to Suspension System - “Wheel”)
3.
Remove the under cover.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
4.
Remove the engine cover.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
5.
Remove the air duct and the air cleaner assembly.
(Refer to Intake and exhaust system in this group)
6.
Loosen the drain plug, and drain the engine coolant. Remove the radiator cap to help drain the coolant faster.
(Refer to Cooling system in this group)
7.
Disconnect the radiator upper hose and lower hose.
(Refer to Cooling system in this group)
8.
Disconnect the wiring connectors and harness clamps, and then remove the wiring and protectors from the cylinder head and the intake manifold.
(1)
The intake OCV (Oil control valve) connector (A)

(2)
The exhaust OCV (Oil control valve) connector (A)

(3)
The alternator connector (A)

(4)
The ignition coil connectors (A)
(5)
The fuel pump connector (B)

(6)
The intake CMPS (Camshaft position sensor) connector (A)
(7)
The exhaust CMPS (Camshaft position sensor) connector (B)

(8)
The injector extension connector (A)

(9)
The front HO2S (Heated oxygen sensor connector (A)

(10)
The condenser connector (A)

(11)
The PCSV (Purge control solenoid valve) connector (A)

(12)
The ECTS (Engine coolant temperature sensor) connector (A)

(13)
The VIS (Variable Intake System) connector (A)

(14)
The MAPS (Manifold absolute pressure sensor) & IATS (Intake air temperature sensor) connector (A)

(15)
The ETC (Electronic throttle control) connector (A)

9.
Disconnect the heater hoses (A).

10.
Disconnect the fuel hose (A) and PCSV (Purge control solenoid valve) hose (B).

11.
Remove the intake and exhaust manifold.
(Refer to Intake and exhaust system in this group)
12.
Remove the timing chain including the drive belt, the cylinder head cover, the alternator and the timing chain cover.
(Refer to Timing system in this group)
13.
Remove the injector foam (A).

14.
Remove the injector & rail assembly (A).
(Refer to Engine Control / Fuel System - "Injector")

15.
Remove the vacuum pipe (A).

16.
Remove the high pressure pipe (A) and the PCSV (Purge Control Solenoid Valve) bracket (B).
(Refer to Engine Control / Fuel System - "High Pressure Fuel Pump")

17.
Remove the condenser (A).

18.
Remove the fuel pump adaptor assembly (A).

19.
Remove the intake CVVT assembly (A) and exhaust CVVT assembly (B).

   
When removing the CVVT assembly bolt, hold the camshaft with a wrench to prevent the camshaft from rotating.

20.
Remove the camshaft.
(1)
Remove the camshaft bearing cap (A) by loosening the bolts in the sequence as shown.

(2)
Remove the camshafts (A).

21.
Remove the cam carrier (A).

22.
Remove the HLA (Hydraulic lash adjuster) (A) and the swing arm (B).

   
The HLA and swing arm should be kept together as pairs during storage after removal and reinstallation.
23.
Disconnect the bypass hose (A).
24.
Unfasten the heater pipe mounting bolts (B).

25.
Remove the water temperature control assembly.
(Refer to Cooling system in this group)
26.
Remove the oil control adapter (A) with the gasket (B).

27.
Remove the intake OCV (Oil control valve) (A).

28.
Remove the exhaust OCV (Oil control valve) (A).

29.
Remove the rear engine hanger (A).

30.
Remove the spark plugs (A).
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - “Ignition system”)

31.
Remove the cylinder head.
(1)
Using bit socket (12PT), uniformly loosen and remove the cylinder head bolts, in several passes, in the sequence as shown.

   
Head warpage or cracking could result from removing bolts in an incorrect order.
(2)
Lift the cylinder head (A) from the dowels on the cylinder block and place the cylinder head on wooden blocks on a bench.
   
Be careful not to damage the contact surfaces of the cylinder head and cylinder block.
(3)
Remove the cylinder head gasket (B).

Disassembly
   
Identify, valves and valve springs as they are removed so that each item can be reinstalled in its original position.
1.
Remove the valves.
(1)
Using the SST (09222-3K000, 09222-3K100), compress the valve spring and remove the retainer lock (A).
   
When installing the SST, insert the front support (A) directly into the bolt hole on the cylinder head.

   
Do not press valve retainer more than 12 mm (0.47 in.).
(2)
Remove the spring retainer (B).
(3)
Remove the valve spring (C).
(4)
Remove the valve (D).
(5)
Using needle-nose pliers, remove the valve stem seal (E).

   
Do not reuse the valve stem seals.
Inspection
Cylinder Head
1.
Inspect for flatness.

Using a precision straight edge and feeler gauge, measure the contacting surface of the cylinder block and the manifolds for warpage.

Flatness of cylinder head gasket surface:
Less than 0.05 mm (0.0020 in.) for total area
Less than 0.02 mm (0.0008 in.) for a section of 100 mm (3.9370 in.) X 100 mm (3.9370 in.)


Flatness of manifold mounting surface:
Less than 0.10 mm (0.0039 in.)

2.
Inspect for cracks.
Check the combustion chamber, intake ports, exhaust ports and cylinder block surface for cracks. If cracked, replace the cylinder head.
Valve And Valve Spring
1.
Inspect valve stems and valve guides.
(1)
Using a caliper gauge, measure the inside diameter of the valve guide.

Valve guide inner diameter
Intake: 5.500 ~ 5.512 mm (0.21654 ~ 0.21701 in.)
Exhaust: 5.500 ~ 5.512 mm (0.21654 ~ 0.21701 in.)

(2)
Using a micrometer, measure the diameter of the valve stem.

Valve stem outer diameter
Intake: 5.465 ~ 5.480 mm (0.21516 ~ 0.21575 in.)
Exhaust: 5.458 ~ 5.470 mm (0.21488 ~ 0.21535 in.)

(3)
Subtract the valve stem diameter measurement from the valve guide inside diameter measurement.
If the clearance is greater than specification, replace the valve or the cylinder head.

Valve stem-to-guide clearance
[Standard]
Intake : 0.020 ~ 0.047 mm (0.00079 ~ 0.00185 in.)
Exhaust : 0.030 ~ 0.054 mm (0.00118 ~ 0.00213 in.)

2.
Inspect the valves.
(1)
Check the valve is ground to the correct valve face angle.
(2)
Check that the surface of the valve for wear.
If the valve face is worn, replace the valve.
(3)
Check the valve head margin thickness.
If the margin thickness is less than specification, replace the valve.

Margin
[Standard]
Intake: 1.30 mm (0.0512 in.)
Exhaust: 1.26 mm (0.0496 in.)

(4)
Check the valve length.

Valve length
[Standard]
Intake: 102.22 mm (4.0244 in.)
Exhaust: 104.04 mm (4.0961 in.)
[Limit]
Intake: 101.97 mm (4.0146 in.)
Exhaust: 103.79 mm (4.0862 in.)

(5)
Check the surface of the valve stem tip for wear.
If the valve stem tip is worn, replace the valve.
3.
Inspect the valve seats and the valve guides.
(1)
Check the valve seat for evidence of overheating and improper contact with the valve face.
If the valve seat is worn, replace the cylinder head.
(2)
Check the valve guide for wear.If the valve guide is worn, replace the cylinder head.
4.
Inspect the valve springs.
(1)
Using a steel square, measure the out-of-square of valve spring.
(2)
Using a vernier calipers, measure the free length of valve spring.
If the free length is not as specified, replace the valve spring.

Valve spring
[Standard]
Free height: 45.93 mm (1.8083 in.)
Out-of-square : Less than 1.5°

Camshaft
1.
Inspect the cam lobes.
Using a micrometer, measure the cam lobe height.
If the cam lobe height is less than specification, replace the camshaft.

Cam height
Intake: 39.0 mm (1.5354 in.)
Exhaust: 39.0 mm (1.5354 in.)

2.
Check the surface of the camshaft journal for wear.
If the journal is worn excessively, replace the camshaft.
3.
Inspect the camshaft journal clearance.
(1)
Clean the bearing caps and camshaft journals.
(2)
Place the camshafts on the cylinder head.
(3)
Lay a strip of plastigage across each of the camshaft journal.

(4)
Install the bearing caps and tighten the bolts with specified torque.

Tightening torque
M6 bolts:
11.8 ~ 13.7 N.m (1.2 ~ 1.4 kgf.m, 8.7 ~ 10.1 lb-ft)
M8 bolts:
18.6 ~ 22.6 N.m (1.9 ~ 2.3 kgf.m, 13.7 ~ 16.6 lb-ft)

   
Do not turn the camshaft.
(5)
Remove the bearing caps.
(6)
Measure the plastigage at its widest point.
If the oil clearance is greater than specification, replace the camshaft. If necessary, replace the bearing caps and cylinder head as a set.

Bearing oil clearance
Standard :
0.032 ~ 0.062 mm (0.00126 ~ 0.00244 in.)

4.
Inspect the camshaft end play.
(1)
Install the camshaft bearing caps.
(2)
Using a dial indicator, measure the end play while moving the camshaft back and forth.
If the end play is greater than specification, replace the camshaft.
If necessary, replace the bearing caps and cylinder head as a set

Camshaft end play
Standard :
0.10 ~ 0.19mm (0.0039 ~ 0.0075 in.)

(3)
Remove the camshafts.
Continuously variable valve timing(CVVT) Assembly
1.
Inspect the CVVT for smooth rotation.
(1)
Clamp the camshaft using a vise. Be careful not to damage the cam lobes and journals in the vise.
(2)
Check that the CVVT is locked by turning it clockwise or counterclockwise. It must not rotate.
(3)
Intake CVVT : Seal one of the two advance holes in the camshaft journal with tape.
Exhaust CVVT : Seal one of the two retard holes in the camshaft journal with tape.

(4)
Intake CVVT : Apply approx. 150 kPa (1.5 kgf/cmx, 21 psi ) of compressed air into the unsealed advance hole to release the lock.
Exhaust CVVT : Apply approx. 150 kPa (1.5 kgf/cmx, 21 psi ) of compressed air into the unsealed retard hole to release the lock.
   
Cover the oil paths with a piece of cloth when applying compressed air to prevent oil from spraying.
(5)
Intake CVVT : With compressed air applied, rotate the CVVT into the advance direction (counterclockwise) within its phasing range and check that the CVVT turns smoothly.
Exhaust CVVT : With compressed air applied, rotate the CVVT into the retard direction (clockwise) and check that the CVVT turns smoothly.

CVVT phasing range
Intake : 25°±1° (from the most retarded position to the most advanced position)
Exhaust : 20°±1° (from the most advanced position to the most retarded position)

(6)
Intake CVVT : Rotate the CVVT into the most retarded position (clockwise) and then check that the CVVT is locked.
Exhaust CVVT : Rotate the CVVT into the most advanced position (counterclockwise) and then check that the CVVT is locked.
HLA (Hydraulic Lash Adjuster)
With the HLA filled with engine oil, hold A and press B by hand.
If B moves, replace the HLA.

Problem
Possible cause
Action
1. Temporary noise when starting a cold engine
Normal
This noise will disappear after the oil in the engine reaches the normal pressure.
2. Continuous noise when the engine is started after parking more than 48 hours
Oil leakage of the high pressure chamber on the HLA, allowing air to get in
Noise will disappear within 15 minutes when engine runs at 2000-3000 rpm.
If it doesn’t disappear, refer to step 7 below.
3. Continuous noise when the engine is first started after rebuilding cylinder head
Insufficient oil in cylinder head oil gallery
4. Continuous noise when the engine is started after excessively cranking the engine by the starter motor or band
Oil leakage of the high-pressure chamber in the HLA, allowing air to get in
Insufficient oil in the HLA
5. Continuous noise when the engine is running after changing the HLA
   
Do not run engine at a speed higher than 3000 rpm, as this may damage the HLA.
6. Continuous noise during idle after high engine speed
Engine oil level too high or too low
Check oil level.
Drain or add oil as necessary.
Excessive amount of air in the oil at high engine speed
Check oil supply system.
Deteriorated oil
Check oil quality.
If deteriorated, replace with specified type.
7. Noise continues for more than 15 minutes
Low oil pressure
Check oil pressure and oil supply system of each part of engine.
Faulty HLA
Remove the cylinder head cover and press HLA down by hand.
If it moves, replace the HLA.

Reassembly
   
Thoroughly clean all parts to be assembled.
Before installing the parts, apply fresh engine oil to all sliding and rotating surface.
Replace oil seals with new ones.
1.
Install the valves.
(1)
Using the SST (09222-2E000), push in a new stem seal (A).

   
Do not reuse old valve stem seals.
Incorrect installation of the seal could result in oil leakage past the valve guides.
(2)
Install the valve, valve spring and spring retainer.
   
Place the valve springs so that the side coated with enamel faces toward the valve spring retainer and then installs the retainer.
(3)
Using the SST (09222-3K000, 09222-3K100), compress the spring and install the retainer locks.
Before releasing the valve spring compressor, ensure that the retainer locks are correctly in place after pushing down and releasing the compressor handle 2 ~ 3 times.

   
When installing the SST, insert the front support (A) directly into the bolt hole on the cylinder head.
   
Do not press valve retainer more than 12 mm (0.47 in.).
Installation
   
Thoroughly clean all parts to be assembled.
Always use new cylinder head and manifold gaskets.
Always use new cylinder head bolts.
The cylinder head gasket is a metal gasket. Take care not to bend it.
Rotate the crankshaft to set the No.1 piston at TDC (Top dead center) on compression stroke.
1.
Install the cylinder head gasket (B) on the cylinder block.
(1)
Remove hardening sealant, oil, dust, moisture and harmful foreign materials from the cylinder block and the cylinder head.
(2)
Apply liquid gasket on the edge of the cylinder block.
(3)
Install the cylinder head gasket with the dowel pins of the cylinder block.
(4)
Apply liquid gasket on the edge of the cylinder head gasket.
   
Apply liquid gasket on the edge of the cylinder block and cylinder head gasket.

Sealant: Threebond 1217H or equivalent

   
Assemble the cylinder head gasket and the cylinder head within 5 minutes after applying sealant.
2.
Place the cylinder head (A) carefully to protect damage to the head gasket during installation.

3.
Install the cylinder head bolts with washers.
Using SST (09221-4A000), install and tighten the 10 cylinder head bolts, in several passes, in the sequence as shown.

Tightening torque
1st step:
32.4 ~ 36.3 N.m (3.3 ~ 3.7 kgf.m, 23.9 ~ 26.8 lb-ft)
2nd step: 90~95°
3rd step: 90~95°

   
Do not reuse the cylinder head bolts.
Do not apply engine oil on the bolt threads to achieve correct toruqe.
Remove the extruded sealant within 5 minutes after installing cylinder head bolts.
The engine running or pressure test should not be performed within 30 minutes after installing cylinder head bolts.
Be careful not to change the installing position of the preassembled washer bolts and non-preassembled washer bolts.
When installing the washer of the non-preassembled washer bolts, the round and chamfer of washers should be faced up.

4.
Install the spark plugs (A).
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - “Ignition system”)

Tightening torque:
14.7 ~ 24.5 N.m (1.5 ~ 2.5 kgf.m, 10.8 ~ 18.1 lb-ft)

5.
Install the rear engine hanger (A).

Tightening torque:
34.3 ~ 39.2 N.m (3.5 ~ 4.0 kgf.m, 25.3 ~ 28.9 lb-ft)

6.
Install the exhaust OCV (Oil control valve) (A).

Tightening torque:
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

7.
Install the intake OCV (Oil control valve) (A).

Tightening torque:
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

   
Do not reuse the OCV when dropped.
Keep the OCV filter clean.
Do not hold the OCV sleeve (A) during servicing.
When the OCV is installed on the engine, do not move the engine with holding the OCV yoke.

8.
Install the oil control adapter (A) with a new gasket (B).

Tightening torque:
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

9.
Install the water temperature control assembly.
(Refer to Cooling system in this group)
10.
Fasten the heater pipe mounting bolts (B).

Tightening torque:
19.6 ~ 23.5 N.m (2.0 ~ 2.4 kgf.m, 14.5 ~ 17.4 lb-ft)

   
Do not reuse the seal bolts.
11.
Connect the bypass hose (A).

12.
Install the HLA (Hydraulic lash adjuster)(A) and the swing arm (B).

(1)
When installing HLA, it should be held upright so that engine oil in HLA may not spill and assured that dust does not adhere to HLA.
(2)
HLA should be inserted carefully to the cylinder head not to spill engine oil.
   
In case of spilling, air bleed should be done in accordance with the air bleed procedure. Stroke HLA in diesel oil 4 ~ 5 times by pushing its cap while pushing the ball down slightly with a hard steel wire. (Take care not to severely push a hard steel wire down since ball is several grams.)

13.
Install the cam carrier.
(1)
Using a gasket scraper, remove all the old packing material from the gasket surfaces.
(2)
The sealant locations on the cam carrier and the cylinder head must be free of harmful foreign materials, oil, dust and moisture. Spray cleaner on the surface and wipe with a clean duster.
(3)
After applying liquid sealant on the bottom surface of the cam carrier, assemble the cam carrier. Continuous bead of sealant should be applied to prevent any path from oil leakage.

Bead width: 2.5 ~ 3.5 mm (0.10 ~ 0.14 in.)
Sealant: Threebond 1217H or equivalent

(4)
Place the cam carrier (A) on the cylinder head. The dowel pins on the cam carrier and holes on the cylinder head should be used as a reference in order to assemble the cam carrier in exact position.
(5)
Fasten the cam carrier bolts.

Tightening torque:
18.6 ~ 22.6 N.m (1.9 ~ 2.3 kgf.m, 13.7 ~ 16.6 lb-ft)

   
Assemble the cam carrier within 5 minutes after applying sealant.
Assemble the camshaft bearing cap within 5 minutes after assembling the cam carrier.
The engine running or pressure test should not be performed within 30 minutes after assembling the cam carrier.
14.
Install the camshafts.
(1)
Place the intake and exhaust camshafts (A) on the cam carrier.

(2)
Install the camshaft bearing cap (A).

Tighten the bolts, in several passes, in the sequence as shown.

Tightening torque
M6 bolts:
11.8 ~ 13.7 N.m (1.2 ~ 1.4 kgf.m, 8.7 ~ 10.1 lb-ft)
M8 bolts:
18.6 ~ 22.6 N.m (1.9 ~ 2.3 kgf.m, 13.7 ~ 16.6 lb-ft)

   
Be careful not to change the position and direction of bearing caps.
15.
Install the intake CVVT assembly (A) and exhaust CVVT assembly (B).

Tightening torque:
64.7 ~ 76.5 N.m (6.6 ~ 7.8 kgf.m, 47.7 ~ 56.4 lb-ft)

   
When installing the CVVT assembly bolt, hold the camshaft with a wrench to prevent the camshaft from rotating.

16.
Install the fuel pump adaptor assembly (A).

Tightening torque :
21.6 ~ 26.5N.m (2.2 ~ 2.7kgf.m, 15.9 ~ 19.5lb-ft)

17.
Install the condenser (A).

Tightening torque:
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

18.
Install the high pressure pipe (A) and the PCSV (Purge Control Solenoid Valve) bracket (B).
(Refer to Engine Control / Fuel System - "High Pressure Fuel Pump")

Tightening torque
High pressure pipe nuts :
26.5 ~ 32.4N.m (2.7 ~ 3.3kgf.m, 19.5 ~ 23.9lb-ft)
Bracket bolt :
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

19.
Install the vacuum pipe (A).

Tightening torque:
9.8 ~ 11.8 N.m (1.0 ~ 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 ~ 8.7 lb-ft)

20.
Install the injector & rail assembly (A).
(Refer to Engine Control / Fuel System - “Injector”)

Tightening torque:
18.6 ~ 23.5 N.m (1.9 ~ 2.4 kgf.m, 13.7 ~ 17.4 lb-ft)

21.
Install the injector foam (A).

22.
Install the timing chain including the drive belt, the cylinder head cover, the alternator and the timing chain cover.
(Refer to Timing system in this group)
23.
Install the intake and exhaust manifold.
(Refer to Intake and exhaust system in this group)
24.
Connect the fuel hose (A) and PCSV (Purge control solenoid valve) hose (B).

25.
Connect the heater hoses (A).

   
When installing the heater hoses, install as shown in illustrations.

26.
Install the wiring and protectors on the cylinder head and the intake manifold and then connect the wiring connectors and harness clamps.
(1)
The intake OCV (Oil control valve) connector (A)

(2)
The exhaust OCV (Oil control valve) connector (A)

(3)
The alternator connector (A)

(4)
The ignition coil connectors (A)
(5)
The fuel pump connector (B)

(6)
The intake CMPS (Camshaft position sensor) connector (A)
(7)
The exhaust CMPS (Camshaft position sensor) connector (B)

(8)
The injector extension connector (A)

(9)
The front HO2S (Heated oxygen sensor connector (A)

(10)
The condenser connector (A)

(11)
The PCSV (Purge control solenoid valve) connector (A)

(12)
The ECTS (Engine coolant temperature sensor) connector (A)

(13)
The VIS (Variable Intake System) connector (A)

(14)
The MAPS (Manifold absolute pressure sensor) & IATS (Intake air temperature sensor) connector (A)

(15)
The ETC (Electronic throttle control) connector (A)

27.
Connect the radiator upper hose and lower hose.
(Refer to Cooling system in this group)
28.
Install the air duct and the air cleaner assembly.
(Refer to Intake and exhaust system in this group)
29.
Install the engine cover.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
30.
Install the under cover.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
31.
Install the RH front wheel.
(Refer to Suspension System - “Wheel”)
32.
Connect the battery negative terminal.
(Refer to Engine and transaxle assembly in this group)
33.
Add all the necessary fluids and check for leaks.
Connect GDS. Check for codes, note, and clear. Recheck.
   
Refill engine with engine oil.
Refill a radiator and a reservoir tank with engine coolant.
Clean battery posts and cable terminals and assemble.
Inspect for fuel leakage.
-
After assembling the fuel line, turn on the ignition switch (do not operate the starter) so that the fuel pump runs for approximately two seconds and fuel line pressurizes.
-
Repeat this operation two or three times, then check for fuel leakage at any point in the fuel line.
Bleed air from the cooling system.
-
Start engine and let it run until it warms up (until the radiator fan operates 3 or 4 times).
-
Turn off the engine. Check the level in the radiator, add coolant if needed. This will allow trapped air to be removed from the cooling system.
-
Put radiator cap on tightly, then run the engine again and check for leaks.
Cylinder Head Components and Components Location
Components 1. Fuel pump adaptor2. Camshaft bearing cap3. Camshaft front bearing cap4. Exhaust camshaft5. Intake camshaft6. Exhaust CVVT assembly7. Intake CVVT assembly8. Cam carrier9. Cylinder he ...

Cylinder Block
...

Other information:

Hyundai Tucson (LM) 2010-2015 Service Manual: Output Speed Sensor Description and Operation
Description The Output Speed Sensor is a vital unit that measures the rate of rotation of the transmission's turbine shaft and output shaft, and delivers the readings to the TCM. The sensor provides critical input data that's used in feedback control, damper clutch control, g ...

Hyundai Tucson (LM) 2010-2015 Service Manual: General Information
General 1. Basically, all measurements in this manual are taken with a tracking gauge. 2. When a measuring tape is used, check to be sure there is no elongation, twisting or bending. 3. For measuring dimensions, both projected dimension and actual-measurement dimension are used in thi ...

© 2010-2019 www.htmanual.net